The decree ╣228 adopted by the RAS General Committee in June 27, 2006 approved the following main activities of the Institute
- the theory of information transmission and protection;
- mathematical theory of information and management, multi-component random systems;
- information and communication technologies and their application in complex systems and networks;
- information processes in living systems, and bioinformatics;
- computational linguistics and natural language simulation.
Each scientific activity of the Institute includes a range of more specific subsections.
Research on error-correcting coding and data protection, especially the development of theory and methods for error-correcting coding in highly reliable and protected information systems is one of the most important in the THEORY OF INFORMATION TRANSMISSION AND PROTECTION up to 2015. This research is carried out in the following areas:
- list-decoding of Reed-Solomon codes in concatenated constructions;
- general coding theory and combinatorics;
- computer implementation and simulation of communication systems using advanced code modulations which ensure high reliability and high-speed data transmission;
- coding methods protected from unauthorized eavesdropping and recovery.
Attention is focused on such issues as:
- theory, algorithms of codes construction, coding and decoding with low-density checks and component BCH and RS codes.
- algebraic decoding of Reed–Solomon codes and their compositions.
- coded modulation with highly precise and low-density codes for mobile communication systems.
- concatenated coded modulations for fiber optic communication systems.
- coded modulations and decoding algorithms for data storage systems.
- methods of error-correcting coding.
- coding methods (combinatorial and algebraic approaches).
- methods of universal lossless compression.
In the MATHEMATICAL THEORY OF INFORMATION AND MANAGEMENT, AND MULTI-COMPONENT RANDOM SYSTEMS research is conducted in the following areas:
- analysis methods of computer models of continuous systems.
- analysis methods of desynchronized systems.
- qualitative analysis methods of data communication networks.
- topological methods of nonlinear analysis.
- analysis of dynamical system attractors.
- algorithmic and probabilistic methods of analysis, impact analysis and data compression.
- statistical methods of signals detecting and analyzing, including the study of nonequilibrium statistical physics models and the development of new stochastic algorithms based on these studies for the problems of image detection, recognition and restoration. The application of these algorithms for a detailed analysis of the optical high-resolution images obtained during GPS survey.
- study of Gibbs fields and their applications to image analysis.
- spectral analysis of multiparticle operators.
- asymptotic behavior of random walks in random environments.
- algebraic geometry and number theory; their interrelationship and application in information and coding theory.
- statistics of Young diagrams and representation theory of infinite symmetric group.
- modal logic.
- research on non-linear Markov processes.
- the theory of group representations.
- algorithmic information theory, Kolmogorov complexity and its application in analysis of information-theoretic models.
- game-theoretic prediction models, the theory of self-learning algorithms.
- design of suboptimal robust statistical decisions.
Research in these areas will allow not only gain new theoretical results, but also determine recommendations for practical use and, in particular, computer simulation of complex technical systems and networks.
In INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES AND THEIR APPLICATION IN COMPLEX SYSTEMS AND NETWORKS research is focused on the following areas:
- development of theoretical bases of data transfer networks design, including as terrestrial fiber and copper channels so wireless radio or infrared communication links;
- methods and algorithms design for optimizing the topological structure of wired and wireless information transmission networks;
- methods development for estimating broadband wireless networks capacity and the choice of optimal parameters of network protocols;
- methods and algorithms development for improving operating speed and reliability of wireless communication channels, including the creation of non conflict duplex communication channels on the basis of laser and radio technologies, etc.;
- development of analysis and synthesis methods of wireless personal, local and distributed information communication networks;
- development of simulation models of wireless networks;
- concepts and prototypes development of advanced telecommunications equipment;
- testing systems development of wireless networks settings;
- software development for telecommunications equipment;
- development and research of designing methods of large-scale information systems of organizational management;
- theoretical bases development of speech technologies, which includes fundamental studies of processes of speech production and speech perception with the construction of mathematical models for synthesis, voice recognition and transmission, as well as verification and speaker identification;
- cognitive methods development of computer design of complex technical objects.
Particularly in the field of cognitive systems and knowledge systems there will be developed and studied the following issues:
- methods to support the identification and formalization of the experience and knowledge, including knowledge about the processes, in such hardly formalized domains as medicine;
- methods of cognitive systems modular development for such areas as medicine, providing a continuous increasing process of the knowledge they use and facilitating the possibility of their use;
- analysis methods of dynamic data generated by complex systems, and methods of models construction to predict future states of such systems;
- semantic analysis methods of the processes and their descriptions which are suitable particularly for the implementation of semantic search;
- working methods with the knowledge for cognitive systems, providing specifically the possibility of generating new knowledge, effective dissemination of knowledge and use of knowledge for managing the interaction between cognitive system and the man in the process of strengthening his intellectual capabilities.
The preparation of proposals to be submitted to IEEE LAN/MAN Standards Committee is an important activity area. Such proposals describing new mechanisms of multicasting, synchronization in mesh-networks and support of point-to-point connections in networks such as hot spot, has already been made by the Institute and adopted as changes to the standard wireless networks. The participation of Russian experts in such activities will not only influence the formation of technology policy in wireless networks, but also prepare national producers, who undoubtedly will be working in that direction, for new specifications and standards adopted in the world.
In the field of geoinformatics research will focus on design and development of the fundamentals of distributed geoinformational technologies, including:
- geoinformation analysis methods of space-time data flow.
- methods of acquiring relevant information and identifying patterns from spatial-temporal geodata.
- algorithms of parallel geocalculations for computationally succinct geoinformatics purposes.
- geoinformation analysis technology in the grid-infrastructure.
- network geoinformation technology for the study of geophysical processes in the crust.
The research will result in the development of network geoinformation systems, which will include an effective means of intellectual processing of space-time geophysical data, support data integration and problem-oriented software, distributed on network servers as well as on the local computer, perform parallel computations on multiprocessor/multicore local computers, remote computing clusters and in grid environment.
In digital image processing research is aimed at addressing the following vital issues in the theory of compression, analysis, recovery and processing of multicomponent static and dynamic images:
- image compression in medical-information storage systems and medical data transmission.
- development of the theory and analysis, recovery and processing methods of static and dynamic images in large information systems.
- development of methods for detection and localization of objects in images and multi-dimensional signals using adaptive linear and nonlinear detectors. Detecting accuracy estimation and object coordinates measurement using the proposed detectors.
- development of reliable estimation methods for motion of dynamic images on the basis of adapting the dynamic programming methods for multidimensional signals with vector values of the unknown function.
- development of methods for locally-adaptive image processing in various orthogonal bases in order to restore the distorted signals.
In INFORMATION PROCESSES IN LIVING SYSTEMS AND BIOINFORMATICS the Institute employees deal with a very broad range of issues.
These issues related particularly to information processes in living systems include:
- study of information processes in the nervous system of human beings and animals in order to build adequate models of information processing of the nervous system, implemented in the formation of coherent behavior;
- study and construction of mathematical models which reflect the work of individual units of sensory information systems (peripheral, central and sensorimotor levels of information processing);
- analysis of comparable problems solutions in living and technical information systems in order to improve the latter;
- development and implementation of diagnostic methods and devices for medicine and geology;
- modeling of human visual system elements;
- study and simulation of visual phenomena;
- development of image processing methods for systolic architectures;
- development of artificial vision algorithms;
- development of data visualization methods;
- development of biophysical models of the bioelectric signals genesis at the cellular and organ levels;
- methods development of noninvasive measurement, case monitoring and effective evaluation of normal and pathological heart states on the basis of computer processing of the electromagnetic field of the heart;
- development of efficient methods for solving direct and inverse electrodynamic problems for the analysis of electrophysiological processes in the body;
- study of organizational principles of sensory integration and sensory-motor interaction in the processes of motor control;
- study on the interaction of the central nervous system levels in the formation of an internal representation of one’s own body and external space and in posture and movement control;
- study on the role of internal body models generated by the brain and the environment in posture maintaining, movement control and locomotion control mechanisms.
In addition research is carried out in the following areas:
- study of the cellular colour signal encoding mechanisms in the visual system of lower vertebrates;
- development of new mathematical colour constancy models and colour opponence mechanisms at the level of dwarf neurons in the central retina of primates;
- study on the separation of biologically significant signals against sensory flows associated with one’s own locomotion and activity (of autonoises) and an algorithm of their suppression by animals has been developed;
- to identify the perception mechanisms of the fundamental physical parameters of the visual scene (object’s colour, shape, size, speed, etc.) the mechanisms of human and animal spatial and colour illusions will be studied and modeled;
- the development of a new concept, that is focusing eye device, and its development in the postnatal ontogeny, taking into account the maturation of feedback mechanisms and visual behavior;
- development of new diagnostic and treatment programs and devices for ophthalmology;
- development of mathematical models of bioelectric generators of cardiovascular and other body systems;
- development of new imaging techniques of electrophysiological heart states with image animation to enhance the effectiveness of heuristic and quantitative diagnosis methods and case follow-up of the heart states;
- obtaining of new noninvasive diagnostic criteria for myocardium pathological changes;
- development of new methods of diagnostic analysis of multicomponent biomedical (bioelectrical) signals;
- study on isolating mechanisms of acoustic communication in closely related species of grasshoppers;
- study of colour sensitivity receptor system (retina cones) of the animals due to the nature of their visual environment (way of living, the nature of daily activity, usual for their light regime), as well as regional peculiarities of retinal pigment epithelium associated with functional specialization in areas of retina;
- analysis of aromatics influence on human working capacity and behavior;
- testing of a new hypothesis on the role of eye movements (micro-discontinuity) to improve visual acuity;
- conducting a quantitative analysis of postural components of a programmable arbitrary motion. In the course of the study there will be clarified the relation between proactive components and regulated by feedbacks components in the system of maintaining the vertical depending on changes in external conditions, the type and nature of the afferent information;
- study on management system operation of vertical posture maintenance at rest and during performance of motor tasks under impacts on the proprioceptive and visual inputs, as well as under the presence of additional support. There will be established a system for studying posture maintenance parameters in virtual reality; also there will be tested the hypothesis concerning the fact that one of the visual stabilization mechanisms of the vertical posture of a human being is the vision influence on the muscular-arthral stiffness;
- conducting experiments to elucidate the role of internal model in the formation of the end point position based on the afference of two joints and in the motion visualization of arm end segment;
- study on the correlation between peripheral effects and central regulation level in locomotor activity management. This will not only broaden our understanding of the nature of human stepping automatism and of the structure of the locomotor generator, but also enable the application of the obtained results in the motor rehabilitation practice;
- conducting a range of studies necessary to complete understanding of the steady and unsteady locomotion modes of some vertebrates and invertebrates;
- improvement of the rehabilitation method of orthopedic and neurological patients using the stand, which is based on programmed electrical stimulation and imposed limb movements to restore the ambulation;
- creation of a hardware and software system to restore the normal distribution of torso muscle tonus, and there have been made recommendations on the practical application of new rehabilitation techniques;
- identification of the most informative parameters of stabilographic signal, promising in terms of early diagnosis of Parkinson’s disease.
Research in these areas will not only allow to receive new information about living systems (in particular, about the human being), but develop a modern medical equipment for diagnosis and treatment of various diseases. In particular, it is expected to develop and patent a wide range of ophthalmic instruments that have no analogues in Russia and abroad.